How the “Global Cooling” Story Came to Be




The Hubble telescope has seen evidence of water plumes venting from the surface. Water blankets 71 percent of our home planet’s surface at depths that average about 4 kilometers.

While we aren’t likely to have time machines like the ones in movies anytime soon, scientists are actively researching and exploring new ideas. But for now, we’ll have to enjoy the idea of time travel in our favorite books, movies and dreams.

Learn what science is, how it works, and how it connects to your life

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How Citizen Scientists Rescued Crucial World War II Weather Data

Within natural science, disciplines that are basic science develop basic information to explain and perhaps predict phenomena in the natural world. Applied science is the use of scientific processes and knowledge as the means to achieve a particularly practical or useful result.

Some climatologists predicted the trend would continue, inching the earth toward the colder averages of the “Little Ice Age” from the 16th to 19th centuries. And still, Gwynne notes of his story, “I stand by it. It was accurate at the time.” “It’s part of the game, once you get from science to politics, that’s the way it’s played,” he said. “I have, in fact, won prizes for science writing,” he said, with just a whiff of annoyance, in an interview this week. For decades, ovens achieved “defrost” or any low-power setting simply by turning the magnetron on and off, so that it would generate full-power microwaves for only part of the total cooking time—a cycle that is clearly audible. Some new units have a pulse-width modulator—a hefty electronic circuit that clips the power to the transformer, which lessens the power of the microwaves.

They influence what we choose to study, our perspectives when we approach scientific phenomena and our strategies for studying them. When we enter the world of science, we do not shed our cultural practices at the door. Several years ago nutritionists raised concerns that the microwaves depleted nutrients in food. All cooking methods can destroy vitamins; the extent of the damage depends on the temperature and the length of cooking time. Most research indicates that microwave ovens result in less extreme temperatures and in fact require less time for cooking than stove-top or oven methods. One outstanding feature of this drama is the role played by those who themselves were not, or not exclusively, geologists. Most notable is William Thomson, ennobled to become Lord Kelvin in 1892, whose theories make up an entire section of this collection.

These manufacturers often collaborate with various foundations, research institutions, and academic organizations to develop and manufacture electron microscopes. Additionally, there are government-funded initiatives and independent research institutes that contribute to the advancements in microscope technology and their wide availability. Other more specific and advanced microscopes might use electro-magnetic radiation that is not in the visible spectrum, such as electron microscope, but these images are not something you can detect by eye without proper machinery assistance. In scanning electron microscopy , a beam of electrons moves back and forth across the surface of a cell or tissue, creating a detailed image of the 3D surface. This type of microscopy was used to take the image of the Salmonella bacteria shown at right, above. One limitation, however, is that electron microscopy samples must be placed under vacuum in electron microscopy .